Architecture of ancient civilizations of America
The Architecture Of Mexico
On the territory of the Mexican plateau (average altitude of 2300 m above sea level) on change each other come different cultures until it became the centre of the Aztec Kingdom . The ruins found in Mexico, represent for the most part remains or temples or fortifications. Their construction is massive, yet noble taste and bears the stamp of art that have already achieved well-known development.
The great temple of Mexico, stood in the middle of the city, was so great that, according to the testimony of Cortez, it was possible to put 500 horses. He represented the pyramid in five stories, 38 meters high, and had on the basis of 95 m and was decorated with two towers.
One of the most ancient monumental buildings of Ancient America pyramid in Cuicuilco (before 500 BC). It is a round building (diameter at the base of about 135 m, height 20 m), consisting of four steps. First there were built two stages, at the top was set an altar. Later were built two steps. On top of the pyramid are wide stairs, orientirovana East-West direction. The pyramid is constructed of large boulders laid in clay.
Houses Cuicuilco, judging by their remains, were constructed of wattle, covered with clay, with straw roofs. Settlements arose near bodies of water. Mostly people grew corn and squash. The inhabitants of Cuicuilco fled due to a volcanic eruption, lava covered the city and the foot of the pyramid.
Significant monuments of that time are structures in Teotihuacan (300 BC — 900 ad) – palaces, stepped temples, the Grand pyramids of the Sun and moon .
Still one of the settlements the “classic period”, with a remarkable architecture, is the \ \ \ ‘ s — the heyday of which (VIII—IX centuries) coincides with the decline of Teotihuacan. Cult \ \ \ ‘ s center was located on the artificially flattened top of the hill, the slopes of which were backed terraces. Building, consisting of three groups of monuments connected by nasypany and esplanades, were part of the regular plan of the city, oriented on cardinal points. In the Western group of buildings was very interesting construction with tation for ball games (VIII—IX centuries). In different places of Central America has repeatedly found ancient halls and stadiums for ball games, which consisted of a ritual. In the \ \ \ ‘ s is one of the earliest such facilities valley of Mexico.
The city of Tula (Tollan) is the capital of the ancient tribe of the Toltecs (x-XIII centuries) was located on the border of the fertile valley of Mexico and Northern barren plains. Perhaps the Toltecs sacked and burned Teotihuacan. For Toltec art is characterized outstanding ornamental stone sculptures. In Tollana preserved numerous monuments of that time. Were found the remains of the great pyramid (about 65 m on the side of the base) a group of buildings forming the Eastern part of the cult complex, also smaller in size (38X38 m) North of the pyramid (XIII century), group of dwellings, a pillar of the gallery and the stadium. Five-step pyramid, closing the courtyard from the North, was built of stone and earth, and oblicovka carved plates, oshtukaturivanie and brightly painted. At the top of the pyramid housed the indoor sanctuary, the flat ceiling is supported by stone pillars, near to the entrance some of which depicted figures of warriors, and at the entrance was located columns in the form of a snake. At the foot of the pyramid was the gallery, consisting of three rows of square pillars. Along the Northern edge of the pyramid free-standing, so-called serpent’s wall (THIRTEENTH century), a height of 2.6 m, tapering to the top, richly decorated with bands of reliefs, topped with a delicate comb. Also, as Teotihuacan, city of Tollan was burned and abandoned as a result of the RAID of the Northern tribe of chichimecas .
After the fall of Tollan followed by a period of tribal fragmentation, the period of chichimeca (1250-1430 years), after which remained relatively small monuments.
In XIV century in Mexico, the Aztecs appeared . conquered neighboring tribes, who founded a powerful state of the Aztecs, with its capital – Tenochtitlan (founded in 1325, destroyed by the conquistadors in 1521). The architecture of the Aztecs, with the exception of ornamental motifs, developed the tradition of the Toltecs, and they built the pyramids with decorative friezes.
Tenochtitlan was located on the small island of the salty lake Texcoco, and surrounded by numerous artificial Islands-orchards, to the mainland city was connected by a powerful embankment with drawbridges. Straight streets lead to the main ground of the city, which was located 3 wooden Palace and sacred courtyard enclosed by a stone wall. In its center was a large pyramid (100 X 100 m at the base and 30 m high), on top of which were placed two wooden Holy place: the God of rain Tlaloc and the war God Huitzilopochtli. Also on the sacred round yard there was the temple of Quetzalcoatl and the stadium. Houses were built of crude to the platfory, faced with stone, or oshtukaturivanii and was colored with white or red paint.