Buildings of antiquity
THE DOCTRINE OF EVOLUTION
Arhantropy — ancient people
So, at least in one of the branches of the rich types of the trunk of the Australopithecines, arose and progressively developed the ability to manufacture tools. It was closely linked with the further development of bipedalism and advanced brain development. Probably in this same period there was and extensive utilization of fire. All of these features, taken together, gave such great benefits, what about 2-1. 5 million years ago began a rapid resettlement of those progressive forms in Africa, the Mediterranean, South, Central and Southeast Asia. Settling and getting into new conditions of existence, they formed separate isolated forms. To date (the end of the 60-ies of XX century) there are about a dozen of these fossil forms (presented in the form of residues from many tens, if not hundreds, of individuals), occupying many of the essential features intermediate between modern man, on the one hand, and Australopithecines on the other. All these forms that existed partly simultaneously, partly, apparently, by successive, lived from about 1 million to 200 thousand years BC With the Zoological point of view, these forms probably belong to the same big mind, or superspecies (species complex) — Homo erectus 1.
Lifestyle arhantrop. Despite the considerable heterogeneity of findings in General in some detail to imagine the structure and lifestyle of these creatures. First of all, they differed advanced gun activities. With the help of highly sophisticated hand-axes, hewn on two sides, such as scraping knife and pointed tips, these people could butcher killed animals with stones, batons, long bones. Based on the found along with them bone remains they successfully hunted Buffalo, rhinoceros, deer, rodents, large birds (such as ostriches, etc.), certainly never missed an opportunity to kill and eat their own kind. A significant role in the diet of the ancient people played on berries, fruits, roots and herbs.
The ancient people mainly lived in caves. At the same time, it is possible that they were able to build primitive shelters made of large stones (“stone box”). In place of permanent sites normally used fire (the possibility of getting their fire uncertain, most likely they have supported for many years, the fire lit, for example, lightning).
Harsh life in many respects little different from an animal. This is evidenced by the fact that infant and child mortality was very high. On the other hand, work activity, gregarious way of life — all this has led to further development of the brain. Arhantropy crossed the Rubicon. Judging by the size of the brain, arhantropy had to have this speech (of the Rubicon for this is the mass of the brain, close to 750; that is the mass of the brain masters speech, the child of modern man). It was certainly very primitive, but it was the speech and not separate from animals. The emergence of speech based on employment and public life, should give powerful impetus to the development in the same progressive direction — selection of mankind from MNRE organic nature.
The appearance arhantrop. We know quite a lot about the external appearance of these creatures. Externally they were very similar to modern man (87), although in such essential features as a powerful development brow cushion, the lack of the mental Eminence of the present, low and sloping forehead and a small flat nose, they are quite different from later forms of man. At the same time, the mass of the brain they are much superior to Homo habilis, brain mass was about 800-1000 g, i.e. have reached or even surpassed the lower limits of normally developed brain of modern man (average weight of the brain of Homo sapiens around 1300). In the structure of the brain of the ancient people had some significant features that distinguish it from the brain more developed later forms the anterior part of the frontal lobes had a coracoid form, the parietal region was flattened, the temporal lobe is narrow.
The average value of the body of the ancient people, no doubt, was different in different parts of the Ecumene — where people are living part of our planet. It is believed that the average height of male Homo erectus in China was about 160 cm, women–150 cm; in Java, lived a larger organism. The existence of significant sexual dimorphism in the structure of the body show sharp differences in the sizes of the teeth of male and female skulls. Among the ancient people, perhaps there were larger forms.
Now studied quite a number of the oldest forms of people. The most famous: Pithecanthropus (Java), Sinanthropus (China), Heidelberg man (Middle Europe), Atlanta (Algeria), cilantro (South Africa), Pithecanthropus olgovichi (Central Africa). The oldest of them — cilantro, which can be viewed as transition forms from creatures similar to Homo habilis, to typical ancient people with type Sinanthropus.
Over time the existence of telentrada coincides with the existence of the late Australopithecines and Homo habilis; moreover, assume that cilantro successfully preyed on Homo habilis and the Australopithecines.
So, a 3.0—2.5 million years ago the development on the basis of one of the branches of Australopithecines led to the emergence of Homo habilis and the emergence of the fundamental importance of adaptation (Razvitie brain, mastering fire, making tools) further led to a new outbreak of shaping and creating complex forms of Homo erectus. These progressive overall, form widely spread in the warm zone of Africa, Europe and Asia and evolved in several different directions. However, the main, the most promising direction of evolution was the continued growth of the brain, the development of social way of life, improvement in the manufacture of guns, the increased use of fire (not only for protection from cold and predators, but also to process food).
Despite the increasing similarity to modern man, the most ancient people on a number of significant morphological features were different from modern man. Their evolution was (and went) exclusively by biological factors, including hard natural selection related to intraspecific struggle for existence. After a period of maximum prosperity 600-400 thousand years ago, these forms quickly disappeared, probably giving rise to the new group form — paleoanthropes or Neanderthals.