A new word in the art of the Western middle ages was spoken in France in the mid-twelfth century. Contemporaries called innovation “the French style”, the descendants began to be called Gothic. During the ascent and heyday of the Gothic — the second half of the XII and XIII century — coincided with the period when feudal society reached its climax in its development. A qualitatively new social phenomenon was the growth and prosperity of the cities. In its economic, class and political life they were the offspring of feudal environment, but acted against her as a revolutionary factor. The center of crafts and exchange, the city needed professional training and expertise of the members of the workshops and guilds; the development of crafts pay attention to the study of the phenomena and properties of the real world. For the prosperity of the city needed regular trading Affairs, internal market, safe roads. During the struggle of the towns against their feudal lords, which reached the top in the XII century, appeared the highest forms of city government — the city-commune and town-Rei the audience. The maturity of feudalism
by the Church and the concept of the Institute
tut chivalry— community and equal
STV noble warriors with him
the code of morality and behavior.
Unprecedented power has reached in
XIII century Roman Church. Ponti
ficat innocent III (1198-1216),
powerful and energetic policy, marked the highest point in the theocratic pretensions of Rome. It seemed that in Europe there is no force that can resist the omnipotence of the Pope. But the development of the European countries went a different path. The idea of a theocratic pan-European powers had lost their strength in the face of a new reality — the emerging large nation-States. In feudal society appeared more resistant cementing force than vassal loyalty and a well-established unit of the Church, and economic forces. They led to the consolidation and strengthening of the Central government.
The Crusades in the East has stirred up the Western world. The far lands was now not only to the eyes of pious pilgrims, merchants and brave, but also for the numerous crowds of the crusaders. Encounter with a living reality sobered the minds; fanaticism and enthusiastic and pious exaltation of the first participants of campaigns changed in the second half of the XII and XIII century a more reasonable approach to the assessment of events, there was a genuine interest in new countries.
Changed the position of man in the world, expanding his horizons, complicated mental and spiritual life. Of course, the position of the different classes of men was different, different was their attitude to the surrounding world. But feudal society as whole body, reaching his maturity, was opened before
its members are large in comparison with earlier ages, opportunities for development and manifestation of creative abilities, did a person largely armed in the face of natural and social forces. In various spheres of life have been growing claims of human personality to recognition. Hungry for change reflect and heresy, which from the beginning of the XII century became increasingly formidable. The spiritual life of Europe in the XII and XIII centuries was set in motion, is the desire to understand, to embrace and bring together all the diversity and complexity brought peace. Now it was impossible to completely reject nature, which began to open up in front of an inquisitive mind its mysteries and earthly life, which was a place of sensual pleasures and human daring. They had to explain or find an excuse. Culture began to permeate the worldly spirit. In cities created secular schools, one after another arose universities. The latter, though under the Church’s tutelage, became the hotbed of medieval freethinking. In Europe, the growing role of positive knowledge. In the first half of the XIIth century, Pierre Abelard believed faith not supported by reason, unworthy of man. In the “History of my calamities”, he appears as a person of a new era, with rich and complex spiritual life, capable of self-knowledge. Philosophical doctrine of the nominalists has recognized the primacy of the real things before