In print and manuscript of this country Gothic style dominated until 1945. At the moment the Gothic letter is used widely as an ornamental (especially in signage and in the headlines).
Gothic italic, or kurrent (Kurrent) is an obsolete form of shorthand, which existed in Germany (other German-speaking countries have not been widely). Gothic italic was created based on late medieval cursive. In 1911 in German Sütterlinschrift was adopted, standardized by artist Ludwig Suetterlin (1865-1917). This font is taught in all German schools from 1935 to 1941. This font has been forbidden by decree of Martin Bormann, who erroneously believed that the recension created by Jews. However, Sütterlin was taught in some German schools until the 1970s
Chronologically, the fashion for the Gothic letter coincides with the Gothic era in architecture and art (the concept of “Gothic” is connected with the ethnonym of the Germanic tribe is ready). Prolonged use of Gothic letters, apparently, can be explained not only the aesthetic and technical qualities. In The North Of Europe the figures of Protestantism tried to oppose Gothic Latin Antiqua (modern Latin) – an official letter from the Catholic Church.
The ornate and intricate Gothic script, sets it apart from the monotonous Latin letters attracted the attention of researchers. But so-called “North paradox”, when away from the Mediterranean formed the original writing culture Germano-Celtic peoples, was not properly explained. (See Runes. Irish letter. The Ogham ).
The political events of the 12-13th centuries according to some researchers, has caused a revival of national German spirit, dozing before under the oppression of the clergy and the knighthood. Gothic penetrates first in North-Eastern France and then to Germany. By the way, the epithet was given a new Gothic style by the Italians, wishing to Express their contempt, as barbarous, because in their view called ready was related to the concept of savagery and brutality; meanwhile, at the time of occurrence of ready Gothic in Europe was not in sight and he didn’t get absolutely nothing from this tribe; barbarian also there is nothing in him, but on the contrary, it has great elegance, harmony and the observance of logical laws. Much more more properly, not-so-common name of the style – Lancet, or ogivly (from the French ogive – arrow).
Early Gothic is characterized by tjazhelovato forms as romantic vestiges of proportionality. The second period (14th century) is the development of the style in its full glory – a striking combination of beauty, nobility, ease, consistent enforcement system and a bold desire to draw lines in height; this style is called “secondary”, “radiant” ( rayonnant ) and “decorated” ( décoré ). In 15-16 centuries the style is gradually falling into decay, is inconsistent and pretentious. This “tertiary” period in architecture is called “flowery” ( fleuri ) and “flaming” (flamboyant) due to the excess burden of his decorations and special which among these forms, similar to swinging a candle flame, or a fish bladder ( Fischblase ). Graphics followed the architecture: the principle of elimination of everything in the mechanical construction need not, at the time of full development of this style it comes to the form (be it a building or a Gothic letter) becomes, so to speak, the skeleton on which the body or absent, or has a negligible value.
The poet O. Mandelshtam in the article “françois Villon” wrote “. Gothic isn’t a triumph of dynamics? Another question, more mobile, more fluid – the Gothic Cathedral or the ocean swell”. Or here in his poem compares a stone Gothic spider web: “Lace, stone, cobwebs And be become, the Sky an empty chest with a Thin needle hour”. By the way, the style of the polyline close lines of Gothic has a twin in Indochina – Khmer letter. The similarity of style discouraging. The origins of the Gothic letters are treated differently. However, it is not clear what caused darkening of the identity of the Latin letters, a purely calligraphic is a technique or phenomenon of substrate (noisiest runic letters. for example)? Maybe this unusual style of writing was borrowed from the Jews. The similarity in the names of Gothic and Gothic alphabets too, apparently, is not accidental.
On the other hand, the Gothic style is the basis to consider, as a kind of archetype: on the other end of Eurasia, in Cambodia formed a similar recension of aksar all-in-one .
The letters of the Gothic alphabet ( ℜℭℑℌ ) are used in mathematics and l ogica, as well as in the designation of the currency (the pound sterling ₤) in the title logos of Newspapers.
Recently there is growing interest in the problem of the origin and development Gothic writing 12-15 centuries, issues of physiology, psychology, the evolution of letters and the Gothic influence on the socio-cultural conditions. The Genesis of the Gothic letter is studied and Russian paleography.
In 1932 the German linguist Sigmund Feist hypothesized. in which is believed that about one third of the lexical elements of the Teutonic language originate from the substrate dondiablo of origin, and that the intended simplification of the system of Indo-European Flexi arose as a result of the contact of languages of different origin. Far East e tsya under the issue of cultural affiliation of native German dondiablo of the substrate. In the early 21st century the theory dermascope substrate substantially developed linguist Robert Mailhammer showed that the strong verbs of the Germanic languages are not Indo-European etymology, and that the system of strong verbs also, apparently, has maintaincapable origin. Alien to Indo-European tradition and the movement of the consonants in the German language.
Linguist John Hawkins has allocated a number of words in the English language that have no Parallels outside the Germanic family: sea, ship, strand , ebb. steer. sail. keel. oar. mast. north. south. east. west (terms of navigation); sword , shield. helmet. bow (military terms); carp , eel. calf. lamb. bear. stork (names of animals); king , knight. house. wife. bride. groom. earth. thing (social terms); and drink, leap, bone, hand, sick, evil, little .
The Finnish Kalevi phonolog Viik suggested that the Germanic substrate could be one of the Finno-Ugric languages. In the opinion of Viik, there are similarities between the Finnish-speaking typical mistakes in pronunciation and phonetic mutations, which are witnessed in the transition from proto-Indo-European to protogermanskimi language. According to this theory, speakers of Finno-Ugric languages were spread across Europe and influenced the later intruders, who spoke Indo-European languages, including Teutonic language.
Perhaps dermansky substrate under the hide of the so-called Mediterranean languages (see Aegean writings ).