Gothic style in architecture
Gothic style in architecture
Replaced the Romanesque style in Western Europe came the Gothic style in architecture and dominated in these areas from the 13th to the 15th century. The ancient Romans were called Goths, the barbarian tribes, which invaded the state from the North. In the end I got the derisive term “barbarian architecture” Gothic, though in fact Gothic as the architectural style is striking and admired the modern and discerning audience.
For a long time people called Gothic all the elements of the art of the middle ages. Only in the late fourteenth century it was fully recognized the original art style. Roman the period covering the early middle ages, gradually gave way to Gothic, combining gilding, bright color, shining stained-glass Windows, Symphony of light transfusion, and the expression of its characteristic spires on the tops of buildings.
The inspiration of the masters of the Gothic style in architecture were the Christian worldview, Roman architecture, traditions of ancient culture, portrait miniatures, writing Latin and Romano-Celtic art crafts. A positive impact on the rapid development of style has had a rapid increase of European trade and the increase in the number of cities.
The number of cities increased and their leaders had to gather all the residents in a particular place for holding Sunday mass, in the end, each city had to build at least one Ancient last rites of the Basilica could not accommodate the entire Christian population of the city, so the architects had to figure out how to build a huge spacious temples, decorated so beautifully and expressively, so as to attract to the city of pilgrims from other cities. The starting point of the Gothic style became an island of small size called Ile-de-France region, located in Northern France.
It is highly paradoxical that, despite the demonstration of the irrationalism, perfect forms, mystical expression, of dematerialization, about the emergence of the Gothic became modern at the time advances in the technologies of buildings constructions. In the Eastern territories, specifically in Byzantium, the most common form of steel construction of cross-dome type. At that time the West began to dominate the Basilica of elongated shape, resembling in plan a Latin cross.
At the same time created opportunities to extend the nave of the building compared to the basilicas of the Romanesque era. The naves of Gothic cathedrals resemble elongated inverted ships. However, with the increased space of the naves of uvelichivalas and the size and weight of the arches. crowning them. Before architects there is a problem of load distribution of codes such massive structures.
To achieve a significant reduction of loads was achieved with the help of strengthening timber frame arches, thereby reducing stress on the supports. These remarkable arch, called ribs, which translated from French means rib, streak or crease.
In addition to the ribs to maintain the high walls of the Gothic architects used a system of buttresses and flying buttresses. The first was a back-up wall that is adjacent at a certain angle to the wall of the Cathedral to improve its strength and stability. The flying buttresses had a view of the outer semi arch, the force transmitting horizontal thrust of the vaults, the ribs of the buttresses.
Of great importance during the construction of Gothic buildings has acquired the sculpture. As an integral part of the decoration of facades, sculptural compositions and acquire some independence.