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Mariupol Underground

Occam’s razor in action

To my utter surprise, it turned out that the rumors about the dungeon (or rather most of them) has arisen not on an empty place. Although the information in them is often distorted beyond recognition – they’re based on real facts.

By a happy coincidence, we can even specify the exact date of the beginning of the study “underground” theme of Mariupol. It happened September 1, 1928, when the employee of Museum of local lore Peter Mitrofanovich of Pinevich were called to the corner of Karl Marx and a Small Garden. Working, cleared a ditch for a water pipe, found some mysterious underground passage. Inspecting and questioning the local old people the situation is not clarified. I note that Pinevich was not able to deal with this underground structure. Concluding his report he makes the assumption that the course could be dug by the Cossacks or the Turks .

Described by Pinevich the course really stands out among other well-known dungeons in the city. We will consider in the third part of this article.

Of particular surge of interest in Mariupol dungeons observed in recent years. Recent publications the most informative article should be called N. Skrypnyk “Catacombs near Mariupol. Do they exist?” The author has led quite a lot of evidence about the tunnels. Taken together, these facts convince us of the reality of the existence of such phenomenon. Continue reading

The monuments of Gothic architecture

The monuments of Gothic architecture

The content

Gothic – one of the most prominent styles of architecture that invokes any feeling of embarrassment and trepidation. Terrifyingly magnificent buildings amaze everyone who saw them.

Gothic architecture began to develop in the middle ages, based on Roman architecture. For the Gothic structures, which are in most cathedrals and temples, characterized by a huge arch with a pointed top, the decoration of the facade of various carved details, high towers, narrow columns and, of course, the beautiful stained glass Windows.

The most famous monuments of Gothic architecture

St. Stephen’s Cathedral

The Stephansdom in Vienna is one of the most monumental buildings. The construction of the Cathedral began in the early twelfth century, but a fire in 1258 destroyed the Cathedral almost to the ground. Only in 1511, the St. Stephen’s Cathedral was completed thanks to the efforts of Anton Pilgram.

The Cathedral in Lincoln

The Cathedral in Lincoln was rebuilt from the Norman Cathedral. The construction of the Cathedral took a hundred years, whiter, parts of the Cathedral still retains some of the features of the original building. After the earthquake of 1185, the Cathedral was rebuilt.

The Cathedral in Cologne

The Cathedral at Cologne was laid in 1248. The Cathedral was built incredibly slowly, and in 1450 its construction was suspended. Only in 1842 it was decided to resume construction, which was completed Continue reading

Gothic letter

Gothic letter

Latin Bible (1407, England)

Since the beginning of the printing appeared inlaid Gothic fonts — famous Gutenberg Bible was typed variant textures. In Italy, the first printed book with Gothic letters appeared in 1473. (these were the works of H. de Torquemada and R. Caraccioli ) .

The name (from the “barbarian” people ready. in fact had nothing to do with this font) was proposed in the XV century figures of the Italian Renaissance. these fonts are considered “barbaric” and their protivopostavlyalsya Roman literature that was the impetus for the development of new fonts, reminiscent of a Roman typeface. So a serif font. in the Western Christian Romanesque and Eastern European countries on the replacement of the Gothic letter was accepted immediately, however, the German peoples (and peoples under the cultural domination of the latter — the Finns. the Estonians. Latvians, etc.) for the same reason has been used fractures. representing a further development of Gothic letters, the Fraktur was clearly opposed to the serif font as a different system of writing and has never been used for writing in languages where the Gothic letter was not accepted (for example, German-Latin, German-French or German-Czech texts (dictionaries, bilingual or Glossa ) written in Fraktur for the German Continue reading

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