MEGALITHIC TRADITION IN THE URALS AND THE PROBLEM OF PYSHMINSKY DOLMENS
In recent years, historians of information was published about the Ural dolmens, located to the North of the city Pyshma, Sverdlovsk region. The initiator of these searches was AA Cheerful. Subsequently this work was expanded V. G. Nepomnyaschiy. They suggested that these are ancient monuments close to Caucasian and European constructions of this type.
Then, seven facilities were inspected by the archaeologists of Ekaterinburg, and three partially excavated. Excavations have revealed traces of fire before the stone structures and within and calcified bone. However, there were found fragments of Russian ceramics that have allowed us to refer to structures XVII – XIX centuries and assume that it was the furnace lumberjacks or storage products. Was not excluded and ritual (funeral) the assignment of data objects . Continue reading
Features of the Gothic style in architecture
The Romanesque architecture of feudalism was the development of the higher life demands of society. It is the awareness of Europeans of knightly virtues, and the need for more luxurious surroundings that has become the basis of the Gothic style in art, was finally adopted in the XIII century.
This mysterious and somewhat gloomy style was a logical conclusion to art of the middle ages, widely spread in Western Europe, and only partially referring to its Eastern outskirts. Temples and cathedrals were a major architectural embodiment of Gothic. These buildings belongs the Milan Cathedral, whose construction was started in 1386.
The unprecedented height of the Gothic churches was achieved using timber frame construction system. And extensive interiors were decorated with huge Windows, stunning multicolored skillfully made stained-glass Windows.
The main elements of Gothic architecture are:
arches – ribs;
the flying buttresses – open semi arch;
the pillars that serve as pillars for Lancet arches.
Other design features include the vertical projections of the buttresses, cross vaults, carved pediments – winery, pointed openwork towers – pinnacles, Lancet Windows and portals. The facades were decorated with complex Continue reading
Gothic painting | XIII-XVe | Gothic Painting
Gothic painting: paintings, stained glass and book miniatures of the XIII-XV centuries
Gothic — a period in the development of medieval art, covering almost every field of materialistic culture on the territory of Western, Central and Eastern part of Europe from the XII to XV century. Gothic replaced the Romanesque style, gradually replacing it. Although the term “Gothic” is most often applied to architectural structures, the Gothic style also included sculpture, painting, book miniature, costume, ornament, etc.
The Gothic style originated in the mid-twelfth century in Northern France, in the XIII century it spread to the territory of modern Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Spain, England. In Italy, the Gothic has penetrated later, with great difficulty and powerful transformation, leading to the emergence of the “Italian Gothic”. At the end of the fourteenth century Europe was hit by the so-called international Gothic. In the countries of Eastern Europe Gothic entered later and stayed there a little longer — until the XVI century.
To buildings and works of art, which contains characteristic Gothic elements, but created in the period of eclecticism (mid XIX century) and later, uses the term “neo-Gothic”.
The origin Continue reading