The theme was “French Gothic stained glass.”
The object of our study – the stained glass Windows of French Gothic cathedrals.
The subject is technological and artistic peculiarities of creating stained glass during the Middle ages
The ultimate goal of this work is to determine the characteristics and the evolution of French stained glass from the beginnings to the late Gothic.
To achieve it, we must solve the following tasks:
– to analyze the technological features of manufacture of stained glass.
– to identify the main artistic techniques of French stained glass art on the example of the most famous monuments
– to trace the evolution of stained glass in medieval France
The structure of the work corresponds to the task and consists of three chapters. In the first Chapter – “the Role of stained glass in the Gothic concept Continue reading
Gothic style in architecture
Replaced the Romanesque style in Western Europe came the Gothic style in architecture and dominated in these areas from the 13th to the 15th century. The ancient Romans were called Goths, the barbarian tribes, which invaded the state from the North. In the end I got the derisive term “barbarian architecture” Gothic, though in fact Gothic as the architectural style is striking and admired the modern and discerning audience.
For a long time people called Gothic all the elements of the art of the middle ages. Only in the late fourteenth century it was fully recognized the original art style. Roman the period covering the early middle ages, gradually gave way to Gothic, combining gilding, bright color, shining stained-glass Windows, Symphony of light transfusion, and the expression of its characteristic spires on the tops of buildings.
The inspiration of the masters of the Gothic style in architecture were the Christian worldview, Roman architecture, traditions of ancient culture, portrait miniatures, writing Latin and Romano-Celtic art crafts. A positive impact on the rapid development of style has had a rapid increase of European trade and the increase in the number of cities.
The number of cities increased and their leaders Continue reading
Latin Bible (1407, England)
Since the beginning of the printing appeared inlaid Gothic fonts — famous Gutenberg Bible was typed variant textures. In Italy, the first printed book with Gothic letters appeared in 1473. (these were the works of H. de Torquemada and R. Caraccioli ) .
The name (from the “barbarian” people ready. in fact had nothing to do with this font) was proposed in the XV century figures of the Italian Renaissance. these fonts are considered “barbaric” and their protivopostavlyalsya Roman literature that was the impetus for the development of new fonts, reminiscent of a Roman typeface. So a serif font. in the Western Christian Romanesque and Eastern European countries on the replacement of the Gothic letter was accepted immediately, however, the German peoples (and peoples under the cultural domination of the latter — the Finns. the Estonians. Latvians, etc.) for the same reason has been used fractures. representing a further development of Gothic letters, the Fraktur was clearly opposed to the serif font as a different system of writing and has never been used for writing in languages where the Gothic letter was not accepted (for example, German-Latin, German-French or German-Czech texts (dictionaries, bilingual or Glossa ) written in Fraktur for the German Continue reading