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French Gothic stained glass

The theme was “French Gothic stained glass.”

The object of our study – the stained glass Windows of French Gothic cathedrals.

The subject is technological and artistic peculiarities of creating stained glass during the Middle ages

The ultimate goal of this work is to determine the characteristics and the evolution of French stained glass from the beginnings to the late Gothic.

To achieve it, we must solve the following tasks:

– to analyze the technological features of manufacture of stained glass.

– to identify the main artistic techniques of French stained glass art on the example of the most famous monuments

– to trace the evolution of stained glass in medieval France

The structure of the work corresponds to the task and consists of three chapters. In the first Chapter – “the Role of stained glass in the Gothic concept Continue reading

Mariupol Underground

Occam’s razor in action

To my utter surprise, it turned out that the rumors about the dungeon (or rather most of them) has arisen not on an empty place. Although the information in them is often distorted beyond recognition – they’re based on real facts.

By a happy coincidence, we can even specify the exact date of the beginning of the study “underground” theme of Mariupol. It happened September 1, 1928, when the employee of Museum of local lore Peter Mitrofanovich of Pinevich were called to the corner of Karl Marx and a Small Garden. Working, cleared a ditch for a water pipe, found some mysterious underground passage. Inspecting and questioning the local old people the situation is not clarified. I note that Pinevich was not able to deal with this underground structure. Concluding his report he makes the assumption that the course could be dug by the Cossacks or the Turks .

Described by Pinevich the course really stands out among other well-known dungeons in the city. We will consider in the third part of this article.

Of particular surge of interest in Mariupol dungeons observed in recent years. Recent publications the most informative article should be called N. Skrypnyk “Catacombs near Mariupol. Do they exist?” The author has led quite a lot of evidence about the tunnels. Taken together, these facts convince us of the reality of the existence of such phenomenon. Continue reading

Megalithic temples

Megalithic temples

Among other merits before history, the Maltese archipelago is world famous for the fact that the most ancient man-made structures on Earth are located here. This is the megalithic temples .

The person who first confronted with such prehistoric monuments, raises a number of questions: what is the churches, how many are they, where are they located, what purpose was built? Let’s start with the basics, what is the megalith at all? In fact, it is every religious building of the huge raw or semi-processed stone blocks, which include dolmens (funerary box, covered with a massive flat slab), and menhirs (single standing stones) and cromlechs (circular fence) . Maltese megaliths are dolmens . The most famous stone circles on the planet are Stonehenge (England) and Carnac (France, not to be confused with Egyptian temple complex), but the construction of the ancient Maltese, in addition, they are distinguished “accuracy” – more than twenty temple complexes located on the territory, comparable to a small European city.

What they have in common? – the material, design features (e.g., login form), in many cases, and similar architectural form, resembling the petals of a flower. Some temples are rather primitive, probably not all the details have survived, and others have specific Continue reading

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