The theme was “French Gothic stained glass.”
The object of our study – the stained glass Windows of French Gothic cathedrals.
The subject is technological and artistic peculiarities of creating stained glass during the Middle ages
The ultimate goal of this work is to determine the characteristics and the evolution of French stained glass from the beginnings to the late Gothic.
To achieve it, we must solve the following tasks:
– to analyze the technological features of manufacture of stained glass.
– to identify the main artistic techniques of French stained glass art on the example of the most famous monuments
– to trace the evolution of stained glass in medieval France
The structure of the work corresponds to the task and consists of three chapters. In the first Chapter – “the Role of stained glass in the Gothic concept Continue reading
Tower of Hercules: the oldest lighthouse in the world (Spain)
World’s oldest lighthouse, built in the days of Ancient Rome, stands on a small Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish town of La Coruna. This structure is also known as the Tower of Hercules, and is the world’s only Roman lighthouse that is open until now. The height of the tower is 57 meters, and its silhouette, towering over the Atlantic waters has long been a symbol of the city.
The walls of the tower with the track from the outside of the spiral track
Lighthouse in Spain is valued as a historic monument of national importance, and in 2009 it even included in the list of UNESCO world heritage sites. Besides the towers, the facility also comprises a sculpture Park, an ancient Roman structure near the lighthouse, numerous rock carvings and a Muslim cemetery.
Rocky shores “edge of the earth”, as once called the Peninsula, were very dangerous for navigators, therefore, approximately in the late First or early SECOND century the Romans built a tower, designed to simplify the difficult route for ships passing. Construction was led by Continue reading
Among other merits before history, the Maltese archipelago is world famous for the fact that the most ancient man-made structures on Earth are located here. This is the megalithic temples .
The person who first confronted with such prehistoric monuments, raises a number of questions: what is the churches, how many are they, where are they located, what purpose was built? Let’s start with the basics, what is the megalith at all? In fact, it is every religious building of the huge raw or semi-processed stone blocks, which include dolmens (funerary box, covered with a massive flat slab), and menhirs (single standing stones) and cromlechs (circular fence) . Maltese megaliths are dolmens . The most famous stone circles on the planet are Stonehenge (England) and Carnac (France, not to be confused with Egyptian temple complex), but the construction of the ancient Maltese, in addition, they are distinguished “accuracy” – more than twenty temple complexes located on the territory, comparable to a small European city.
What they have in common? – the material, design features (e.g., login form), in many cases, and similar architectural form, resembling the petals of a flower. Some temples are rather primitive, probably not all the details have survived, and others have specific Continue reading