MEGALITHIC TRADITION IN THE URALS
MEGALITHIC TRADITION IN THE URALS AND THE PROBLEM OF PYSHMINSKY DOLMENS
In recent years, historians of information was published about the Ural dolmens, located to the North of the city Pyshma, Sverdlovsk region. The initiator of these searches was AA Cheerful. Subsequently this work was expanded V. G. Nepomnyaschiy. They suggested that these are ancient monuments close to Caucasian and European constructions of this type.
Then, seven facilities were inspected by the archaeologists of Ekaterinburg, and three partially excavated. Excavations have revealed traces of fire before the stone structures and within and calcified bone. However, there were found fragments of Russian ceramics that have allowed us to refer to structures XVII – XIX centuries and assume that it was the furnace lumberjacks or storage products. Was not excluded and ritual (funeral) the assignment of data objects .
In the past few years in search of dolmens in this district is engaged in group Slepuhina his Berdyugina N. Yu. and Galina S. S. in the Summer of 2006 they were familiarized with the Pyshma dolmens S. A. Grigoriev and L. V. Ivashko with experience work with the megalithic constructions of the lake Turgoyak . The results of this trip are outlined in this article.
Visual inspection of the dolmens in the area moving away lake allows to make a conclusion about the antiquity of these structures. Currently different groups of informants have 80 information about facilities of this type. Targeted the collection of this information will surely increase the number of these monuments many times. Accordingly, it is not a coincidence but a steady cultural traditions. It should not be forgotten that the archaeological exploration in the forest zone of the Urals was conducted exclusively along the shoreline, and discussed the facilities are located on the slopes of the ridges, away from water bodies. Even targeted their search in the taiga is very complicated.
This cultural tradition is identical with the European dolmens. It should, of course, take into account that the specificity of material (stone slabs) can cause independent emergence of similar architectural forms. However, in this case clearly visible features missing in the Caucasian dolmens and typical for Western Europe. In particular dolmen has an entrance located in the ceiling, which finds direct Parallels in Western Europe (top entry) and Dating to about 2850 BC in uncalibrated date system. Dolmen No. … has an entrance in the upper part of the front wall (half-height front entrance), which is the same parallel that has a date around 2800 BC In the calibrated values of these Parallels give the dates respectively 3530 and 3590 BC .
Mediterranean and Caucasian dolmens have specific features that are missing in the Urals and Northern Europe. They are characterized by a round or rectangular holes in the front wall . The earliest type of the Caucasian dolmens are simple structures made of plates without the input manhole. Their appearance dates back to 2700 BC . This trait finds Parallels among Pyshminsky dolmens.
During the work on the Turgoyak lake in 2006 were found quarries of the builders of the megalithic structures, allowing to trace in detail the technique of extraction of stone. One of the characteristics of lying there, stone slabs are the marks of the wedges formed by splitting. Similar marks are on one of the slabs of the dolmen
The reference to the incompatibility with monumental Pyshminsky dolmens with the European megaliths or lake Turgoyak is not quite correct . The vast number of European megaliths presents a very modest structures. The objects comparable with the megaliths of Turgoyak, in Western Europe, known in single copies. It is a major cult complexes of the type of Stonehenge or new Grange. 2006 research on the Turgoyak has allowed to assume that there we are dealing with a major religious center for a considerable territory. However, in any region, where the megalithic tradition, such monumental buildings and religious centers accompanied by a set of small burial monuments.
Apparently, in the area of the Pyshma we deal with sites of this type. Before large-scale excavation it is difficult to say anything definite on the funerary rite, however, judging by the small size of the cameras, they could serve only for the burial of the remains of the cremation. This is confirmed by calzinirovnie bones, discovered during excavation of the megaliths separate Pyshma.
The discovery of the excavations of Russian dishes is not evidence of the late date of the discussed objects. Multiple reuse of the megaliths is a standard situation everywhere, as it is, as a rule, open the monuments. During the excavation of megalith 1 on lake Turgoyak we recorded three period of visits (not counting active tourists lately) So detection in this megalith of modern coins is not evidence of its construction recently. The same fully applies to the Russian ceramics in Pyshma the megaliths.
Pyshma dolmens are ancient objects dated, apparently, from the III Millennium BC Beginning of the emergence of this tradition in the Urals dates to the first half of this Millennium. Together with the objects of Turgoyak Pyshma dolmens are megalithic tradition. The most probable is the connection of this tradition with the Western European, however, to establish the nature of this relationship is due to the scarcity of archaeological materials is currently not possible. Pyshminsky dolmens are funerary monuments. More than likely the detection of a significant number of such facilities along the Eastern slopes of the Urals, the taiga ridges. However already now it can be argued that the Eastern slopes of the Urals are another area of distribution of megalithic traditions.