The Art Of Egypt
The art of Ancient Egypt — architecture, fine
Sculpture and wall painting connected with architecture, were integrated. A synthetic solution was dictated by the canons. The Pharaoh’s tomb was considered a place of the divine spirit — the patron Saint of the country. It gave the cult of the dead kings national importance, led to an enormous construction. Fine art in Ancient Egypt was nourished religious beliefs and was conditional.
The Art Of Egypt
Ancient styles, genres of modernity —
visual tutorial course.
Lectures on the history of art. — K. 2006-2009. — Part 1 (in Ukrainian).
Textbook of fine arts, the abstract architecture, the application consists of 5 parts. In the first lecture the book covers the tread of Egyptian art from pre-dynastic existence before the conquest of Ancient Rome.
The ancient Kingdom;
Late in the period.
The art of architecture of Ancient Egypt
The building was known for its grandeur;
buildings today belong to the largest on Earth.
The state was powerful, with unlimited power of Pharaoh and huge army officials. Religion pervaded the life of society, and through his own mythology through its images and allegories, the Egyptians rose to a deep, generalized understanding of the universe. For their performances, temporary life on earth ended in eternity. By creating monuments, buildings and sculptures, the Egyptians attempted to penetrate this mysterious world. For Royal tombs first built mastaba — rectangular in the ground plan of the tomb. One of the seven wonders of the world called the Grand pyramid at Giza, built by pharaohs of the IVth dynasty, in Greek their names are Cheops, Chephren, Mikerin (ancient Egyptian language — Khufu, khafra, Menkaur).
The Art Of Ancient Egypt . The pyramid of Cheops and today among the largest stone structures on the planet. Its height is 146 m, the length is 233 m. the Foundation Consists of 2.3 million limestone blocks, weighing 2.5–30 tons each. Erected by her brother of Cheops — Hemion. The height of the neighboring pyramid of Khafre is 143 m, the base of 215 m. the Third, the smallest pyramidal structure belonged to Macerino. The height is 62 m, the basis 108 m To the pyramids was a direct road from the Nile valley. On the border between fertile areas and the desert stands a colossal Sphinx, a lion with the face of Khafre. The great Sphinx is the oldest surviving monumental sculpture on the planet (photos ).
The art of Egyptian architecture . The old Kingdom gave the ensemble at Giza, the New — the temples of Karnak and Luxor. When the Theban rulers of Egypt again became a huge state. Were joined southwest Asia (Syria, Palestine), South of Kush. The capital became Thebes, which hold the enormous building. Temples dedicated to the cult of the God Amun. Created the giant temple complexes at Karnak and Luxor. They consisted of a sanctuary, a columned (hypostyle) hall and private courtyard surrounded by a colonnade and two massive pylons with a single entrance in the middle. Near the pylons were sculptured colossi, and from them to the river led a long straight road — the Avenue of sphinxes.
The Art Of Ancient Egypt
The depiction of a clear, conditional and graphics,
murals in a local plane and stains.
Traditional reception of the conditional unfolding of figures on the plane: head in profile, shoulders in the front, legs in profile. The Pharaoh was depicted as huge in proportion, a ruler is much smaller in size — small. Reliefs and wall paintings were supposed to glorify the power of the rulers, to tell about their activities.
Fine art of Egypt . Egyptian artists felt and gave three-dimensional form. Reliefs and frescoes were dictated by the building volumes. Used low relief with a chosen setting and embedded the relief image. Outstanding pre-dynastic monument — plate Narmer. To a slate plate (palette) Pharaoh Narmer composition separated by bands on a separate friezes, consistently unfolds “record” about a historical event — the unification of the valley hapi (the Nile) into a single state. A small limestone sculpture of a scribe Kai is only 53 cm, however, gives the impression of quite monumental forms. This contributes to the composition of the seated figures, which are included in the pyramidal circuit. In the mastaba of the architect of Hasira found wooden relief with his portrait. He stands, tall, facial expression deadpan, in the hands of the attributes of its activities — an instrument for writing, a staff and a rod. Hasira not only the scribe and Builder, but also a connoisseur of the craft.
In the reign of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) built the new capital Ahetaton. The single deity of the sun itself declared Aton, the old deity is prohibited, the temples closed. Since ancient Egyptian capital is near the modern settlement of tel El-Amarna, it gave its name to the era — Amarna period. The best works of the time indicated by the humanness of the images, the insight of their emotional world, filled with charm. Sculpture workshops Ahetatona represent the Acme plastics of the New Kingdom. The portraits of Queen Nefertiti, wife of Akhenaten (see photos sculptures), their daughters are very different from formal statues and even reliefs, designed for a broad view of the population. The head of Queen Nefertiti in a high head-dress is a masterpiece, which stands next to the Aphrodite de Milo and the Mona Lisa brush of the great Leonardo.
In the reliefs and frescoes all clear, conditionally, graphic, complying with the local colorful planes and stains. Wall painting executed in mineral colors — mainly gold, orange-red, green, blue and turquoise. They were drawn on a dry wall surface. Great importance was color, reliefs definitely painted. The walls of Royal tombs were deployed scrolls of papyrus. Sometimes they are even painted with yellow paint in the color of papyrus scrolls. A clear “Charter” and the letter was put columns “praise the Sun” or other sacred texts. In Amarna times are the first graphic works — illustrations, executed in papyrus.
Decorative language of his
highest elevation reaches in the workshops Ahetatona.
The craft has a positive impact on the artistic process. Processing a range of materials developed for the first time on Handicrafts, showing the wide possibilities for their decorative use. For example, the beauty of the polished surface of coloured stone and pottery first found use in the craft, and then in sculpture and construction. When the Theban rulers in fine and decorative art of Ancient Egypt felt the aspiration to freedom plastic, decoration. Slim and refined products out of the hands of talented artisans Ahetatona.
The Egyptian art . Applied development of Ancient Egypt is represented, first of all, pottery, stained glass and figurines of earthenware. Potters used a manual Potter’s wheel. The manufacture of glass dates back 5 thousand years. Faience (beads and pendants, amulets, and an inlaid plate) covered with a vitreous glaze. It is believed that pottery was invented in Ancient Egypt. The art of making Egyptian faience, covered with opaque glazes (often blue tones) originates before the advent of the dynasties.