The Gothic Church
The Gothic Church
Gothic is a term relating to European culture 13-14 centuries, Although the chronological framework can be extended or narrowed depending on what country you are in. The word “Gothic” comes from the name of the tribe is ready. This time the headship of the Church in society, therefore culture is represented by temples and works of art chiefly on religious subjects. Eschatological mood (waiting for the second coming of Christ and judgment day) in this period is not so relevant, but still present. This was reflected in the scenes of judgment in the temple pediments. The leading role in this period belongs to the architecture.
Features of Gothic architecture . Three-dimensional structure of the churches in General remained the same as in the Roman age. These were buildings in the shape of a Latin cross, three or five, with a cross transept, close to the chancel. The chancel in the apse, covered with a conch. But there are also absolutely new design solutions related to changes in understanding of Church space. Gothic cathedrals have a much larger size in all parameters compared to the Romanesque. This was due to the growth of urban populations and the emergence of a number of cathedrals that store valuable relics on the paths of pilgrimage. Developed by the French in the twelfth century Lancet arch, becomes an integral part of the overall design, “business card” of the Gothic. The architecture of this period offers a unique way to solve the problem of the thrust of the arch by transferring the gravity of the arch on the exterior. The Gothic Church is, in fact, the frame structure with the use of ribbed vaults, the thrust of which is transported via a system of flying buttresses to the buttresses, surmounted by pinnacles with Crabbe and finial. This solution was allowed to penetrate wall openings and Windows, thereby fully light the interior of the Cathedral. But there was a lack of available planes of the walls for the placement of paintings. Therefore, in the era of Gothic stained glass blossoms as the main type of decoration of Church buildings. The facades of Gothic cathedrals usually were two-tower, with Windows and Gables rose-winagami on promising portals. The main Western facade has many sculptures depicting the prophets, saints, kings. Many sculptures were on other facades of the cathedrals. Chimera had to remind of pagan times, and drains gargoyle – shaped in the form of fantastic monsters.
French cathedrals were extremely tall and slender. The most famous surviving : Notre-Dame de Paris is an early example of French Gothic architecture, which still manifested the traits of the previous style – squat, vertical takeoff is not internal buttresses from the base of the columns, as above. The most complete creation of style – the Cathedral in Reims . the structure and appearance of which are very organic.
Gothic cathedrals in Germany the vast majority of cases are more simplified scheme, without deambulatory, without the crown of chapels, often without the flying buttresses. But there is a Cathedral in Germany that meets all the principles of Gothic structure is the Cathedral in Cologne. His huge peaked tower was completed already in the XIX century.
For England, the Gothic was and is a favorite with classical architectural style. English Gothic cathedrals compared with the French not so high, but very long, they seem to be “rasplachivayutsya” on the surface of the earth. As a rule, two of the transept, the Chapter hall (a hall for meetings of the clergy) in the form of a circle or octagon is attached directly to the Cathedral. It is customary to distinguish between three English Gothic style. Because every Cathedral was built a very long time (150-200 years), often all three styles can be seen within the Cathedral. Lanceolate style was named because of a narrow, very elongated Windows with pointed ends; decorative or decorated with an extremely complex ribbed mesh (decorative rib cell, star-shaped, fan-shaped vaults). The last style is perpendicular, so named because of the orthogonal articulation of window openings, often strikingly elegant ribbed vaults, that is, in the present decorative style and style also. The extraordinary complexity of the finished nets in England associated with local berbeckiego marble, well machinable. The most famous examples of English Gothic: Cathedral in Wales (inverted arch at the crossing), king’s College chapel in Cambridge (the most famous and exquisite fan vaults).