The main elements of the Gothic style in architecture
Features of the Gothic style in architecture
The Romanesque architecture of feudalism was the development of the higher life demands of society. It is the awareness of Europeans of knightly virtues, and the need for more luxurious surroundings that has become the basis of the Gothic style in art, was finally adopted in the XIII century.
This mysterious and somewhat gloomy style was a logical conclusion to art of the middle ages, widely spread in Western Europe, and only partially referring to its Eastern outskirts. Temples and cathedrals were a major architectural embodiment of Gothic. These buildings belongs the Milan Cathedral, whose construction was started in 1386.
The unprecedented height of the Gothic churches was achieved using timber frame construction system. And extensive interiors were decorated with huge Windows, stunning multicolored skillfully made stained-glass Windows.
The main elements of Gothic architecture are:
arches – ribs;
the flying buttresses – open semi arch;
the pillars that serve as pillars for Lancet arches.
Other design features include the vertical projections of the buttresses, cross vaults, carved pediments – winery, pointed openwork towers – pinnacles, Lancet Windows and portals. The facades were decorated with complex ornaments and sculptures.
Gothic combines glass, stone, and the bright colors of wall paintings and stained glass. Expressive style captivated by the radiance of gold, and steeples, soaring, demonstrated the human desire for the sky, and served as a reminder of the spiritual side of life. This architecture symbolizes the infinite, palpably expressing all mystical and mysterious, what is in the soul of each person.
Unprecedented height of the cathedrals was due to the possibilities of frame construction.
The walls are virtually absent. Replace the columns with their arches, the components of the long gallery.
Openwork motifs argue for the beauty and refinement with hundreds and thousands of sculptures placed, literally, anywhere.
Gothic architecture is quite dramatic: everywhere sculptures of gargoyles that adorn the portals, the cornices, the roof and even gutters. Gargoyles, grinning viciously from above, as if designed to intimidate the weak and vulnerable parishioner.
The sheer size and immensity of a Gothic buildings, the infinity of arches and sharp spires-arrows and sculptural installations, made a strong impression on the audience. However, buildings constructed in the Gothic style, was impressive not only for their contemporaries. Preserved through the centuries examples of Gothic architecture evoked strong emotions from all generations.
In the early nineteenth century, fans of the Gothic style, an attempt was made to revive Gothic forms of the Victorian period. Dominant at that time in Europe, Neoclassicism began to actively replaced the medieval Gothic look with arches, columns, pediments stretched upwards, arches and towers that are adapted to contemporary architecture. This is the course that gave the world the tower bridge, Neuschwanstein castle, the Palace of Westminster and other masterpieces of architecture, called Gothic.
Not spared this trend and Russia, having shown us, however, is somewhat weaker than in Europe. Fortunately, a separate neo-Gothic buildings still preserved in our country and CIS countries. Lived in Kiev, in the early 20 century Vladislav Gorodetsky, was designed and built in 1901-1903, the famous apartment house with chimeras, the facade of which was decorated with numerous sculptures of monsters, by analogy with Gothic gargoyles. And although the style of this unusual building in Kyiv eclectic, sculpture and separate external elements of the façade serve as a stark reminder of medieval Gothic architecture.
Example of eclecticism is the Sevastianov’s House or the House of trade unions in Yekaterinburg. Impressive in size and very elegant mansion, with elements of Gothic revival, was built in 30-ies of the 19th century, and dictated the fashion of the urban buildings of the following decades.
Architecture. Twenty-first century.
Today, the Gothic style became history, most modern buildings bears the features more concise styles. The fashion dictate of hi-tech, neo-classical, constructivism, art Nouveau, especially the architecture of large urban buildings.
These styles had a significant impact on low-rise housing construction, however the construction of private country is much more open to experimentation, and customers – the expression of his own individuality.
Features of the modern rural architecture
While the General trend of creating living conditions similar to city, constantly changing requirements for rustic architecture, as well as the tastes of summer residents. Often when building a house, customers demand natural materials and to use more of the glazed surfaces of the walls.
Pseudosolenia the style, facades with columns, roof towers, a house in the modernist style and classics, cottages area of several acres is no longer of interest. Buyers of country houses are welcome modern cottages, with simple, clean lines of the facades and interiors: aesthetics of increasingly occupies the attention of its owners.
Therefore, when creating projects of country houses, architects often turn to styles of the past, among which particular interest is the Gothic. Resorted to it as to the carrying a bright, original ideas.
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Designers find creative inspiration from the authors of great medieval structures. Thus, the structural features of Gothic buildings were the basis of technologies of timber-framed construction. In this design, the load on the Foundation is responsible the carrier base. The main feature of fachtwerk – using only the walls as enclosing elements. In this design the walls are not load bearing, allowing you to endlessly experiment with materials.
This complex, expressive architectural style closely associated with contemporary youth subculture. Perhaps partly for this reason, it today has its fans. And although it is now difficult to see a particular historical style in its pure form, a number of projects and a separate rustic buildings have obvious similarities with the Gothic style.
They can be seen and features of other architectural styles, but Gothic palpable, as in this cottage, has retained even unique layout, typical of medieval Gothic structures.
Another example of deference to the Renaissance era can be seen clearly in the General outlines and specific elements of this two-storey country house. Typical Gothic Lancet window is located in the center of the facade, the roof support outrigger elements characteristic triangular shape. Even more similar to attach iron bars on the Windows and heavy wrought iron doors.
Owners of country houses are increasingly paying attention to their aesthetic properties, on the choice of style that largely determined the artistic taste of the owners. But for functionality and aesthetic functions of the building were in harmony with each other and with the surrounding landscape, requires the participation of the architect.
Only a specialist can fully reflect the rustic home of a particular architectural style and preferences of its owner, creating a work of art with perfect proportions, is able to convey to future generations the artistic minds of our contemporaries.